Mason training for earthquake resistant building construction . This training enables masons working in field to acknowledge the knowledge of earthquake resistant building construction in rural and urban areas.


PHP Programming Language:

php programming language

    PHP stands for PHP Hypertext Preprocessor. It is a general purpose Programming language especially used for Web Page Development. PHP can be embedded in HTML codes and used in server side unlike HTML which is used in browser side. So PHP is generally used in the back-end operations of a website.

    PHP is used with database, mostly with MySQL. PHP is easy to learn and it supports both Object Oriented and Procedural Styles. PHP works on the server side of the web applications which means the client do not have access to PHP codes unlike HTML. In case of HTML the browser displays the source of the applications. In these terms PHP is more secure.

   For me the most wonderful feature of PHP is that it can be embedded in HTML codes. Both HTML and PHP codes can be written on same file. PHP codes are enclosed in between  the tags <?php and ?>. The browser handles all the HTML codes while the codes between the PHP tags are handled by the server.

   PHP codes need to be interpreted by the interpreter. XAMPP can be used to compile and interpret PHP codes. PHP files have the extension '.php'.

   Below is a simple example of PHP, which displays "HELLO WORLD" in the web-browser. 

Save this code with name test.php  in /xampp/htdocs/ folder. Type http://localhost/test.php  in your browser to see the result.


As we all know , Nepal is very prone to regular earthquake and it is very necessary to follow earthquake resistant building construction for minimizing the loss of life and property due to the earthquake.
As Nepal’s mountains were formed by the movement of two giant tectonic plates, indian and tibetian plates. The pushing action of indian plate towards the Tibetian plate has been stated as the reason for the formation of mountains in Nepal.
As the movement of both plate is continuous, a lot of energy is stored in these tectonic plates and when limit is reached, they give up energy by cracking and thus earthquake occurs.
As most part of Nepal lies in the junction of these two giant plates, it is very obvious for earthquake in Nepal.It is estimated that approximately in every 80-90 years , larger earthquake will occur in Nepal, though it is only estimation and has no proof till date, and it is very uncertain when and where will it occur.
Recent earthquake that occurred in april,2015 badly affected 14 districts of Nepal and Government of Nepal has been involved in reconstruction in those areas. with more than 500,000 houses completely destroyed, a lot of budget and resource is required to rebuilt these places.
Nepal Government released designs for earthquake resistant building but it could not address people's problems and needs. Realising that government released another version of designs but that also could not solve the problem.
With vague variety of culture and economic status, most of people are economically backward and fund provided by government is not enough to build the house of their need. So, it is estimated that more than 70% of affected families will not be able to rebuild their houses.





Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, additives and reinforcements (such as rebar) are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the cement forms a hard matrix which binds the rest of the ingredients together into a durable stone-like material with many uses.

Workability, strength, and durability are three basics properties of concrete. Amount of useful internal work necessary to overcome the internal friction to produce full compaction is termed as Workability. Size, shape, surface texture and grading of aggregates, water-cement ratio, use of admixtures and mix proportion are important factors affecting workability. Strength is to bear the desired stresses within the permissible factor of safety in expected exposure condition. The factor influencing the strength are: quality of cement, water-cement ratio, grading of aggregates, degree of compaction, efficiency of curing, curing temperature, age at the time of testing, impact and fatigue. Durability is sustenance of shape, size and strength; resistance to exposure conditions, disintegration and wearing under adverse conditions.

pipe flow

Pipe flow, a branch of hydraulics and fluid mechanics, is a type of liquid flow within a closed conduit (conduit in the sense of a means of containment). The other type of flow within a conduit is open channel flow. These two types of flow are similar in many ways, but differ in one important aspect. Pipe flow does not have a free surface which is found in open-channel flow. Pipe flow, being confined within closed conduit, does not exert direct atmospheric pressure, but does exert hydraulic pressure on the conduit.

Not all flow within a closed conduit is considered pipe flow. Storm sewers are closed conduits but usually maintain a free surface and therefore are considered open-channel flow. The exception to this is when a storm sewer operates at full capacity, and then can become pipe flow.

Energy in pipe flow is expressed as head and is defined by the Bernoulli equation. In order to conceptualize head along the course of flow within a pipe, diagrams often contain a hydraulic grade line. Pipe flow is subject to frictional losses as defined by the Darcy-Weisbach formula.





A flooring work for civil structure that is both time efficient and medium to high workability process to create a facility that is safe, healthy and comfortable concrete flooring to be done by used of vacuum dewatering concrete flooring (VDF) technology. This process is a means to efficiently remove excess water from newly placed, compacted and leveled concrete surfaces. Vacuum treatment of concrete has been refined to specially address concreting of large exposed surfaces in hot weather conditions. Vacuum dewatering greatly improves the abrasion and impact resistance of the concrete surface. The vacuum dewatering results in coarse aggregate in the fresh mix being drawn to the top surface a further contributing factor in achieving wear-resistant concrete surfaces the surface of vacuum treated concrete is free of pitting, an important consideration for abrasion resistance and the possible exposure to a continuous flow of liquid over the member. Technologies applied in concrete flooring will improve concrete flooring physical behavior. This method used like concrete flooring in warehouse, concrete road, parking area, production area in industrial buildings. Nowadays this vacuum dewatering technique for concrete flooring is excessively using by various contractors & builders in order to get good quality & to achieve speed in construction of concrete floors. This paper provides a review on a new way of concrete flooring by the used of vacuum dewatering concrete technique/remix method in the area of concrete flooring in civil structure with its advantages & dis-advantages of VDF system.