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seminar on smart materials and its applications

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SEMINAR     REPORT

SMART MATERIALS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SRI JAYACHAMARAJENDRA COLLAGE OF ENGINEERING

MYSORE

MAY 2009

SMART MATERIALS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

A Seminar report submitted to

SRI JAYACHAMARAJENDRA COLLAGE OF ENGINEERING, MYSORE

by

NAKUL-S-MURTHY

Register No: 4jco5cv034

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

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SRI JAYACHAMARAJENDRA COLLAGE OF ENGINEERING

MYSORE, INDIA

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar report titled SMART MATERIALS AND ITS

APPLICATIONS is being submitted by Mr. Nakul-s-Murthy, in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of engineering from S.J.C.E.,

Examiners         Signature of the HOD

1.                Dr. Syed Shakeeb-Ur-Rahman

Professor and Head

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With the development of the smart or intelligent structures in civil engineering, the health

monitoring of structures and active vibration control of structures are being introduced. In a smart

structure, sensors and actuators are essential components for sensing and controlling purposes.

Generally, sensors and actuators are made of the so-called smart materials. Some everyday items

are already incorporating smart materials and the number of applications for them is growing

steadily. This paper highlights the use of smart materials for the optimal performance of buildings

and other infrastructures particularly those under the threat of earthquake and other natural hazards.

Key words --- active control, actuators, austenite, control unit, damping, martensite, passive control,

sensors, shape memory alloy, superelasticity, vibration control.

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CONTENTS

1. Introduction 1

2. Smart materials 2

3. Smart structure 3 - 4

3.1    Components of a smart structure 3

3.2    Functions of smart structure 4

4. Classification of smart materials 5 - 17

4.1    Piezoelectric 5 - 6

4.2    Electrostrictive 7

4.3    Magnetostrictive 7

4.4    Shape memory alloys 8 - 20

        5.  Other applications of smart materials 18 - 21

           Conclusions 22

           References 23

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The development of durable and cost effective high performance construction materials and systems

is important for the economic well being of a country mainly because the cost of civil infrastructure

constitutes a major portion of the national wealth. To address the problems of deteriorating civil

infrastructure, research is very essential on smart materials. The peculiar properties of the shape

memory alloys for smart structures render a promising area of research in this field.

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Smart materials are   materials that have the intrinsic and   extrinsic capabilities, firstly to respond to

stimuli and environmental changes and secondly to activate their functions according to these

changes. Science and technology have made amazing developments in the design of electronics and

machinery using standard materials, which do not have particularly special properties (i.e. steel,

aluminum, gold). Imagine the range of possibilities, which exist for special materials that have

properties scientists can manipulate. Some such materials have the ability to change shape or size

simply by adding a little bit of heat, or to change from a liquid to a solid almost instantly when near

a magnet; these materials are called smart materials.

Smart materials have one or more properties that can be dramatically altered. Most everyday

materials have physical properties, which cannot be significantly altered; for example if oil is heated

it will become a little thinner, whereas a smart material with variable viscosity may turn from a

fluid which flows easily to a solid. A variety of smart materials already exists, and is being

researched extensively. These include piezoelectric materials, magneto-rheostatic materials, electro-

rheostatic materials, and shape memory alloys.

Each individual type of smart material has a different property which can be significantly altered,

such as viscosity, volume, and conductivity. The property that can be altered influences what types

of applications the smart material can be used for.

2.1   SCOPE OF SMART MATERIALS

Structural designs constructed using smart materials which adopt performance based design aims in

a. They act as actuators which can adapt to their environment by changing characteristics such

b. They perform as sensors providing actuators with information about structural and

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A smart structure is a system that incorporates, smart materials which help in performing particular

functions like sensing, transmitting and recording of data. A smart structure integrates the properties

of embedded sensors, actuators and control mechanisms in order to respond to a given stimulus in a

functionally useful manner. Usually this involves implementing hardware and/or software control

Three criteria in characterizing smart structures are as follows

b. Means to achieve that purpose.

c. Posses a biological pattern of functionality.

3.1   COMPONENTS OF A SMART STRUCTURE

Fig.1 Components of a Smart Structure (sensor technology limited)

The control system continually monitors the sensor’s signal, processing the information in order to

determine action required. If an action is required, then a signal is applied to the appropriate

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To monitor environmental changes and generate signals proportional to the changing measured.

The actuators are used to change the properties of the smart structure in order to achieve the desired

3.2   FUNCTIONS OF SMART STRUCTURE

Smart structure aims at 5 basic functions

Collection of raw data required from appropriate sensing and monitoring of the structure

Forwards raw data to the local/central command and control unit

3.2.3    Command and Control Process

Controls the whole systems by analyzing the data, deriving the appropriate conclusion and

Transmits the decision and associated instructions back to the member of the structure

It takes the action by triggering the control device    

SENSOR ACTUATORS

CONTROL

Data

Transmission



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